Human Resource Development Practices: Empirical Evidences from Sahid Gangalal National Heart Center

Abstract: 
Human resource development (HRD) is the process of increasing knowledge, skills and capacities of employees. It is concerned with preparing the employees to work effectively and efficiently in the organization. It is a complementary approach to other development strategies, particularly employment and reduction of inequalities. It also considers HRD as synonymous to human development, which encompasses education, training, health, nutrition, and fertility reduction. It ensures that organizations have adequate human resources with capabilities needed for achieving goals. This article has tried to explore the practices and relation between HRD and performance of Shahid Gangalal National Heart Center.
Main Article: 

Introduction
Human resource is regarded as the most significant and precious resource in every organization. Dynamic, motivated and energetic resources can form a successful organization. Employees can play a vital role, contributing their expertise, time and energy to make the organization effective, profitable, and successful the in overall aspects of the business.
Heartly and Morley (1997) believe that the ability to recognize and prioritize trainings and development activities or program as per the needs of the organization to maximize the benefits remain underpinning function for developing training and development of HR. The training and development of the employees are considered as important part of human resource development. Training is ongoing. planned shot-term process utilizing organized measures through which employees acquire knowledge and skills in term with definite work to be done. Training helps people modify their attitude, knowledge and skills through the learning experience to achieve better performance. Similarly, the term development refers to a broader and a long-term instructive processes in which managers or employees obtain theoretical knowledge. Learning is practical based and employees learn through their work process and learning environment.
Organizational or employees' performance exclusively depends on how the organization develops and educates its employees. “Distinctive human resource development practice shape the core competencies that determine how firm competes” (Armstrong, 2013:10). CIMA suggests that “Human resource development may be seen as a process of building and enhancing the skills, knowledge and attitude of employees”(CIMA, 2009:432). Human resource development in any organization is therefore concerned with developing competencies of employees in the organizational setting. HRD helps the organization in improving capabilities, enhancing effectiveness, faster team work, increasing job satisfaction, improving decision-making; managing change, conflict and environmental adoption. Human resource development is the development of the employee for the better competencies, dynamism, motivation, and effectiveness (Rao, 2014). HRD aims on persistently appraising the proficiency necessities of persons to perform the job and responsibility given to them. It also aims at preparing people for performing theirs roles or functions which they may be required to perform in the future as they go up in the organizational hierarchy or as the organization takes up new tasks through diversification, expansion, modernization, economization, etc. HRD tries to develop the potentiality on employees for future jobs roles in the organization' (Rao, 1998).
Redman and Wilkinson (2006) suggested that human resource development is concerned with developing human competencies throughout time-bound and planned learning practice to improve the creative input of people to achieve organizational goals. Managers of the organization, get the jobs done by working with and through mobilizing people at the right time in the right place. Human resources need to be developed continuously as a result organization could outperform in achieving organizational goals efficiently and effectively.
“Globalization and needs for the companies to gain sustainable competitive advantage require new and different approaches to recruitment, training, developing and retaining the employees with key skills” (Wilson, 2005:156). Human resource development has a greater role in each and every type of organization regardless whether it is profit or non-profit motivated. Managers get the jobs done by working with or through people. HRD is concerned with developing competencies of people in the organizational setting. HRD helps the organization to improve capabilities, enhance effectiveness, faster team work, increase job satisfaction, improve decision-making, manage change and handle conflicts as well as enable environmental adoption. There are various functions of HRD like training, management development, career development and planning, performance appraisal, employees counseling and welfare.
“Human resource development is a process of developing and unleashing expertise for the purpose of improving individual, team, work process, and organisational system performance” (Swanson and Elwood, 2009:4). In the organizational context, the development of any individual means the acquisition of innovative capabilities. It enables them to perform their duties easily and effectively. As human resources development assumes the concept of treating human beings as a great asset of the organization, it certainly contributes on the achievement of organizational goals (Wilson, 2005).

Research Questions
Human resource development is a very important aspect for an organization. One of the main issues and trends of HRD includes training and development. For the growth of an organization and achieve its objectives, training and development are considered as inevitable facets because they aim to develop employees' skills, knowledge, attitude, capabilities, and efficiencies. In order to achieve the desired goals, employees' training and development play very vital role in every type of organization.
Therefore, this study mainly is aimed at examining whether Shahid Gangalal National Heart Center (SGNHC) has adopted effective employees' training programs; whether the employees' training and development programs enhance organizational performance; the type of climate present, how employees react or feel being members in the organization. As for competitive advantages and overall success of an organization these are the determinant factors. Systematically, they can be presented as:-
• To what extent SGNHC has adopted the training and development program?
• What is the link between employees' development and performance?

Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of this research is to investigate the employees' develop-ment and organizational performance. In addition to this, the research has intended to examine the training and development practices adopted by SGNHC. More specifically, this study is directed towards the following objectives.
• To review the training, development policy and practices, adopted by the SGNHC.
• To establish the link between employees development and organizational performance.

Research Methodology
This study follows descriptive as well as analytical research design to analyze the data. This research is primarily exploratory and analytical in nature as it explores the extent to which human resource and employees' development programs help to enhance the organizational performance as well as help the management and employees in fulfilling their job responsibilities. A design of the present study is based on survey. The primary data shall extensively be used in this research. A carefully designed questionnaire method was used to collect the primary data. The researcher has cautiously designed the questionnaire taking into consideration various factors of employees' development and performance, sources of human resource development and the result of the previous research related on similar areas or topic. The basic source of primary information was the employees of SGNHC. Primary data is widely used in this research. However, the author has reviewed the existing literature for in-depth research. First, the author has reviewed the available literature of human resource management and employees' training and development and performance. For the literature review, the researcher relied on secondary data to gather information from previous research articles, books, magazines, newspapers, journals, the internet and media wherever applicable. A large number of employees are working in SGNHC, therefore, the present study could not cover all the employees of the hospital because of time and resource constraint. However, the research has attempted to cover as many employees as possible to make the result accurate. The researcher administered 180 questionnaires to collect the information or data. 155 questionnaires were collected and 149 useable questionnaires were deployed in data analysis.
Questionnaires were administered and returned in ten days. To meet the stated objectives as per design, they were used for tabulation and data analysis. Simple descriptive statistical tools such as table, excel, and bar diagram were used for data presentation and analysis.
Presentation and Analysis of Data
The current chapter shows the presentation and analysis of the relevant data related to this research, in tabular, pie chart and bar-diagrams form. It also analyzes and interprets the data in such a way that the stated objectives can easily be fulfilled. This chapter mainly highlights data interpretation and the result of the study. 180 questionnaire sheets were administered to collect the data and 155 questionnaires were collected from the respondents. However, only one hundred forty-nine responses were used in the analysis. The researcher could not incorporate all the employees in the research; nevertheless, to make study more realistic and accurate, information was gathered from different departments of the hospital.
Respondents were asked 20 questions in total. And, 9 questions were related to training and development policy and practice, and 11 questions were associated to link employee development and organizational performance of SGNHC. The researcher developed the questionnaires in the form 'yes-no', 'agree-disagree' and 'give opinion' to take the view of the participants. A general overview of all items and other aspects such as training and development of employees, organizational climate and performance evaluation and employee development planning can be a valuable aid to arrive at a conclusion.
To what extent SGNHC has adopted the training and develop-ment program?
Training and development program is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Human resource development function begins with training and development practices and any other skill development program of human resources. For the research purpose, nine questionnaires were designed and administered to collect information to assess the training effectiveness policies and practices of SGNHC. Respondents were asked to answer the questions to assess the employees' training and development policies and practices adopted by SGNHC.
T
able 1: Descriptive analysis of training and development practice (N=149)
S.N. Statements asked to Respondents Agreed (%) Disagreed (%)
1 Are employees training given ade-quate importance in SGNHC? 104 69.8 45 30.2
2 Training provided here are well-planned. Do you agree or disagree? 71 47.6 78 52.3
3 Is training and development pro-grammes of sufficient duration? 48 32.2 101 67.8
4 Training provided here gives good opportunity of new comers to learn about this organization. Do you agree? 119 80.0 40 20.0
5 Norms and values of the organiza-tion are clearly explained to new employees during training? 103 69.0 46 31.0
6 Are senior executives take much interest and spend significant time with new staffs during training. 48 32.2 101 67.8
7 Is training periodically evaluated and improved here? 69 46.3 80 53.7
8 Do Employees acquire technical knowledge and skill through train-ing? 63 42.3 86 57.7
9 Do employees in this organization participating in training assessment? 70 47.0 79 53.0
Source: Field Survey, 2015

The above Table 1 presents the number and per cent of respondents and their views regarding the employee training and development practice adopted by SGNHC.
The data presented in the table above clearly shows that the majority of the respondent (around 70%) supported the fact that SGNHC gives adequate im-portance to the employees' training. Only 30% of the respondents were against this fact. They said that SGNHC didn’t give importance to developing training and development programs for the employees.
Regarding the planning of the training, the majority of the respondents (52%) agreed that the training provided by SGNHC was not well-planned whereas only 48% of the respondents were positive regarding the SGNHC training which they regarded as well-planned.
Most of the respondents surveyed (68%) revealed their disagreement regarding the statement- ‘training and development program are of sufficient duration’. Only 32% of the respondents were in favor of this statement. It clearly points out the shortcomings in the training and development program provided by the SGNHC.
Regarding the provision of learning opportunity provided to newcomers, most of the respondents (80%) agreed that SGNHC provides learning opportunity to newcomers whereas 20% of the respondents were against this view. It is a positive sign. The employees feel motivated and empowered when they are provided with the opportunity to learn and excel.
SGNHC has been found to have the culture of explaining the norms and values to the newcomers during training which is supported by 69% of the respondents. Only 30% of the respondents disagreed. This indicated that new employees get significant time and opportunity to learn about the organization.
Majority of the respondent (68%) opposed the statement that the senior execu-tives take part and spend significance time during the training with junior staff. Only 32% of the employees surveyed supported this statement. This indicates that the senior executives and managers do not seem to be serious towards junior employees' development and learning.
Regarding the query about the periodic evaluation and improvement of training in SGNHC, 54% of the respondents showed disagreement and only 46% agreed that SGNHC periodically evaluates and improves the training program. This indicates that training need assessment system in SGNHC is weak state. It also indicates that training evaluation is not practiced here.
40% of the respondents reported that they acquire technical knowledge and skills from the training, learning and development program, whereas 54% of the respondents were found against the opinion. This is a clear indication of the employees not acquiring technical knowledge.
Regarding training need assessment, the majority (53%) of the respondents reported that they don’t take part in training need assessment prior to being designed to carry out the training whereas only 47% of them reported that they are provided this opportunity. So, it means that SGNHC lacks the practice of involving employees in decision-making and assessment process in relation to training development and implementation.
In summary, it is found that there was disagreement among the employees in the majority of areas of human resource development program (6 areas). The employees agreed on only three areas of human resource development program. Therefore, it demonstrates that employee development policies and practices at SGNHC is found to be at unsatisfactory level. The employees of SGNHC perceive that the hospital is not adequately able to adopt employee or human resource development practices.
What is the link between employees' training, development and performance?
To investigate the link between employees’ development and organizational performance questionnaire consisting of 11 topic questions were delivered to collect information from the respondents. Altogether 149 participants were involved in this survey. Most of the respondents emphasized on competent manpower, training, development, education, foreign visit, required nutrition (Employees Development) help to enhance their performance. Skilled, creative, knowledgeable and active employees boost effective communication, implementation of plans and policies, coordination, motivation and proper monitoring and evaluation with due reward and punishment.
The table below presents the agreements and disagreements of the respondents and their respective percentage as regards the link between employee develop-ment and performance.
In response to the statement 'Human Resource Development helps corporate governance, coordination and motivation', 69% of the respondents agreed and only 31% expressed their disagreement. This indicates that if the organization initiates effective human resource management, it would help enhance good governance, capacity building, motivation and coordination within it.
Regarding the query of Training and Development, the majority of the respondents (68%) expressed their agreement as they felt that training and development of the employees helps to change management, whereas 32% of the respondents disagreed. It is obvious that the majority of the respondents feel training and development as important tools for enhancing management. To find out the view of employees regarding employee development, they were asked to cast their views on the statement: Employees’ development helps to enhance the sense of confidence to which majority of the respondents (62%) agreed and 38% were not in agreement. This indicates that most of the SGNHC employees perceive employee training and development programs create sense of confidence in them. The majority of the respondents (60%) agreed on the that ‘training helps the organization to change the challenges into opportunities and weaknesses into strengths’. The remaining 40% of the respondents were against this statement. It indicates that for strengthening the organizational capacity, the employees should be trained and developed.

Table 2: Analysis link between Employee training, Development & Perfor-mance (N=149)
S.N. Statements Agreed (%) Disagreed (%)
1 Human Resource development helps in corporate governance, coordination and motivation. 103 69.0 46 31.0
2 Training and development of employ-ees helps for change management. 101 67.8 48 32.2
3 Employees’ developments help enhance sense of confidence. 93 62.4 56 37.6
4 Training helps the organization to change the challenges into opportuni-ties and weaknesses into strengths 89 59.7 60 40.3
5 Training, development helps to im-prove productivity, market share, reputation, image, prestige and efficient use of resources. 92 61.7 57 38.3
6 Employee development helps in corporate governance, 78 54.4 68 45.6
7 Trainings and development for em-ployees help for change management and grievance handling effectively and efficiently. 65 43.6 84 56.4
8 Training helps to change challenges into opportunities and weaknesses into strengths in the changing environments 109 73.0 40 27
9 Employees’ development helps to improve productivity, market share, reputation, image, prestige and efficiency. 79 53.0 70 47.0
10 Training and development for employees helps change management 69 46.0 80 54.0
11 Employees developments help enhance motivation of personnel. 103 69.0 46 31.0
Source: Field Survey, 2015

Regarding the benefits of training and development program, the majority of the respondents (62%) agreed on the statement that training and development help improve productivity, market share, reputation, image, prestige and efficient use of resources. On the contrary, only 38% of the respondents showed their disagreement. This clearly shows that if the organization provides training and development programs to its employees, it helps to improve productivity, extend market share, reputation in the market or customers. In addition, it also enhances the prestige of the organization as well as help in the efficient use of the resources.
Most of the respondents (54%) opined that employees’ development helps to promote corporate governance, coordination and motivation while 46% of the respondents were against this opinion. On the contrary, 56% of the respondents did not agree that training and development help to change management and grievance management system while only 43% agreed. As regards the statement 'training helps the organization to transform the changes into opportunity and weakness into strength, the majority of the respondents (73%) expressed their agreement and only 27% were against this opinion.
Employees' development program provides the opportunity for quick promotion and self-development for the employees. Training and development programs enhance the capacity of the employees in their task of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. This is supported by the respondents surveyed who opined that employees’ development program helps to handle employee grievances and promote productivity, confidence, discipline and self-esteem adherence. The majority of the respondents agreed that employees' training and development create a sense of confidence in the SGNHC employees.
The majority of the respondents (69%) opined that there is a strong link between training and development program and employees’ commitment and dedication whereas only 31% of the respondents were against this opinion. Employees surveyed were also found to be positive regarding the role of the employees' development program in promoting accountability and reducing mismanagement. Efficient employees in SGNHC can implement plans, policies and strategies. Most of the respondents agreed regarding about this view.
Regarding the question of job satisfaction, it is found that training and develop-ment add value of job satisfaction by changing employee attitudes and behavior towards jobs. It also heightens employee' morale, reduces absenteeism and increases employees’ turnover. The majority of the respondents (52%) found that employees' development helps in research and development activities, employees’ creativity, internal control system, monitoring and supervision. Human resource development has improved decision-making capabilities and cultured thinking of management. Well-skilled employees have also adjusted with job related problems. Trained employees help to subordinate to improve their performance that leads to employees' participation and cooperation. The respondents agreed that employees’ development equips the manager to pro-act as well as to respond to the changing environmental forces. For the purpose of effective operation of fi-nancial and accounting systems, every organization should follow the budgeting and financial management systems. Similarly, skilled manpower have been mobilized effectively and efficiently in the budgeting and financial management systems in SGNHC. Sometimes, it is also found that there is a problem of goal congruence among the employees due to the lack of control. Regarding the question of the quality of work life and commitment, they agreed that employees’ development leads to commitment, readiness to change, societal well-being, cost effectiveness and implementation of monetary policies. From the interpretation of the data it can be concluded that employees’ training and development play a significant role for the overall development of any type of organization. At SGNHC, employees’ development plays a crucial role for better performance. It is also found that there is a positive relationship between employees’ development and performance of the organization. However, the study shows that training and development programs and activities were inadequate in SGNHC. The date presented above clearly indicate that employees' training and development enhance the organizational performance.

Findings
The following findings have been derived from the current study:
Majority of the respondents supported the fact that SGNHC gives adequate importance to the employees' training. Few said that SGNHC didn’t give im-portance to developing training and development programs for the employees.
Regarding the planning of the training, majority of the respondents agreed that the training provided at SGNHC was not well-planned whereas only 48% of the respondent were positive regarding the SGNHC training which they regarded as well-planned.
Most of the respondents surveyed revealed their disagreement regarding the statement- ‘training and development program are of sufficient duration’. Only a minority of the respondents were in favor of this. This clearly points out the shortcomings in the training and development programsof SGNHC.
Regarding the provision of learning opportunity provided to newcomers, most of the respondents agreed that SGNHC provides learning opportunity to newcomers whereas a few of the respondents were against this view. It is a positive sign. Employees feel motivated and empowered when they are provided with the opportunity to learn and excel.
Majority of the respondents opposed the statement that the senior executives take part and spend significant time during the training with the junior staff. Only a minority of the employees surveyed supported this statement. This indicates that the senior executives and managers do not seem to be serious towards the junior employees' development and learning.
43% of the respondents reported that they acquire technical knowledge and skills from the trainings, learning and development programs, whereas 54% of the respondents did not support it. This is a clear indication of the fact that the employees do not acquire technical knowledge.
Majority of the respondents were against the view that SGNHC provides good career opportunity and higher education facility.
Majority of the respondents were in favour of the Human Resource Development program of the hospital which helped corporate governance, coordination and motivation of the respondents.
Regarding the query of Training and Development, majority of the respondent (68%) expressed their agreement on the statement thattraining and development of the employees help change management, whereas 32% of the respondents did not agree. It is obvious that the majority of the respondents regard training and development as an important tool for changing management.
It was found that most of the SGNHC employees perceive that the employee training and development programs create a sense of confidence in them.
Majority of the respondents agreed that ‘training helps the organization to transform the challenges into opportunities and weaknesses into strength.
The majority of the respondents viewed that HRD helps improve productivity, market share, reputation, image, prestige and efficient use of the resources.
Majority of the respondents (52%) found that employees' development helps research and development activities, their creativity, internal control system, monitoring and supervision. Human resource development has improved decision-making capabilities and cultured management line of thought management. The highly skilled employees have adjusted to job related problems.
Trained employees helped subordinate improvement in their performance that leads to employees' participation and cooperation. The respondents agreed that employees’ development equips the manager to pro-act as well as to respond to changing environmental forces. For the purpose of effective operation of financial and accounting systems, every organization should follow the budgeting and financial management systems. Similarly, skilled manpower have been mobilized effectively and efficiently in the budgeting and financial management systems in SGNHC.
Sometimes it is also found that there is a problem of goal congruence among the employees due to the lack of control. Regarding the question of quality of work life and commitment, they agreed that employees’ development leads to commitment, readiness to change, societal well-being, cost effectiveness and implementation of monetary policies.

Conclusion
The main aim of the study was to assess the employees' development and organizational performance of SGNHC. The study was quite successful in meeting the designed objectives of this research. It was designed to find out the employees' development practice, establish a link between employee development and organizational performance of the hospital. It is obvious from the above analysis of data that employees' training and development programs have positive relationship with performance. The present study can be a valuable piece of research work in Human Resource Development particularly in training, development, performance evaluation system and organizational climate aspects in SGNHC. It may assist academicians, hospital management and any other who are directly or indirectly involved in business, government and non-government sectors.