Bangladesh

Working Environment for Female Employees in Bangladesh Corporate Sector Organizations: An Exploratory Study

Abstract: 
The participation of women in employment has been increasing gradually in Bangladesh despite challenges and constraints due to the lack of congenial working environment. The issue of working environment is more significant when women are concerned. The objective of this study is to explore the work environment for the female employees at corporate sector organizations (CSOs) in the purview of three major areas- physical, human and policy initiatives- to identify the difficulties and challenges women are facing; to find out the reasons and to recommend appropriate actions to address the problems. The scope of this study is limited to the everyday experiences of female officials in three national and international CSOs. The study found some cases of discrimination, incidences of sexual harassment and identified a few challenging facts for female employees. This paper has also incorporated some recommendations provided by respondents to promote women-friendly working environment in their workplace.
Pranab Kumar Panday's picture

Does Access to Information Facilitate Empowerment of Citizens? Answer Lies Within - A Recent Example of Bangladesh

Abstract: 
This particular paper investigates how access to information empowers people. Using the example of Union Information and Service Centre (UISC) the paper argues that better accessibility to information can have a major influence in empowering citizens in Bangladesh since there is a correlation between information access and empowerment. The paper also argues that access to information increases people’s ability to make their own choices, which validates Kabeer’s proposition on empowerment. Thus, it can be claimed that UISC can be a model to other developing countries, and similar findings can strengthen its application and generalization as an independent theory.
Bipasha Dutta's picture

From Hierarchy to Market: Changing Balance in Modes of Governance in Higher Education Policy in Bangladesh

Abstract: 
The economy of Bangladesh evolved through different phases like nationalization, denationalization and movement towards market-based economy. This paper identifies three major trends of market-based economy – privatization, trade liberalization and export promotion. The paper argues that the reports of education committee and education policy 2010 in determining the nature of higher education respond to the economic trends in several cases. By analyzing relevant existing literature and five reports of the education committee, the paper reveals that the economy has moved forward to gain market orientation from hierarchy; at the same time the focus of the education commissions reports changes from the ‘denunciation of mechanization' (1972) to ‘use of technology in education' (2013). The paper finds that the higher education system in Bangladesh is responding according to the market demand and market economy, though at a slow pace.
Jannatul Ferdous's picture

Recruitment in Bangladesh Civil Service: Do Meritorious Get Enough Representation?

Abstract: 
Merit in employment in public service is a key element of excellence. A competent civil service is indispensable for the active execution of public policy and public service delivery. Government needs to confirm that brilliant, capable and devoted people are in employment in the arena of civil service to form a well-organized civil service system. A comprehensive recruitment plan contributes stress on merit rather than any other concern. However, merit has not given proper prominence in our recruitment rule. Most of the posts in the civil service are reserved for the desired groups through the system of quota. Owing to the gaps in the recruitment system, a great number of unskilled applicants have come into the civil service and creates stumbling block towards the way of representation of meritorious candidates. The consequence of such recruitment has been distressing for the country. The paper mentions some recommendations to become free of this condition so as to generate job opportunities to the meritorious and promising applicants with effectiveness for ensuring good governance in the state.
Pranab Kumar Panday's picture

Does Institutional Change Ensure Gender Mainstreaming in Politics? The Experience of Bangladesh

Abstract: 
Institutional change is considered as one of the important mechanisms to ensure gender main-streaming in politics since after the Beijing Conference in 1995. The significance of institutional changes is immense in a country where society is dominated by patriarchy and males and institutions are not women-friendly. Under such a circumstance, the paper tries to explore the importance of institutional change in mainstreaming gender in the political process of the local government in Bangladesh and its impact on the state of women’s participation. Based on both empirical and secondary data, the finding of the study has come out with the conclusion that it is really difficult to ensure women’s greater participation in politics without bringing changes in the institutional rules. Institutional changes that have been brought through different reforms have become successful in ensuring the presence of more women in the local government political process, but those have failed to ensure real participation of women in the decision-making process. This has made them play an “ornamental” role in the decision-making process.
Md. Shahriar Islam's picture

Good Democratic Local Governance in Bangladesh: Ramification of Upazila Parishad in Accelerating Local Development

Abstract: 
The objective of the paper is to look at the various governance and democratic aspects such as participation, accountability, transparency, rule of law etc. at the Upazila level in Bangladesh and to what extent the indicators portray good democratic local governance at the Upazila level. This paper examines to what extent the aspects of governance and democracy is being channeled to ensure that the needs and wants of the local people are met and alleviate poverty towards local development. Our paper would discuss whether the Upazila Parishad in Bangladesh is ensuring good democratic local governance to expedite the development process at the local level.

1982 Citizenship Law in Burma and the Arbitrary Deprivation of Rohingyas’ Nationality

Abstract: 
The Rohingyas have experienced difficulties in obtaining citizenship after 1982 Citizenship Law in Burma was enacted. Since the beginning of Burmese independence, their separate identity was recognized by the then democratic government of Premier U Nu (1948-1962). Their situation worsened after the military takeover in 1962 leaving them subject to humiliating restrictions and harsh treatment by the State. However, the Rohingya statelessness was institutionalized by the Burmese 1982 Citizenship Law. This paper argues that the citizenship is in line with international human rights standards but under international law is considered the responsibility of the State to adhere to international principles through domestic legislative systems. State sovereignty is primarily understood to entail the power to determine who will be the permanent and preferred residents of the State, or put differently, who will be citizens. The Burmese are adamant that the Rohingyas are Bengalis regardless of their residency history, and therefore belong in Bangladesh. Their Islamic religion and Indo-Aryan racial appearance do not conform with so-called ‘Burmese citizenship standard’. According to the United Nations human rights standards and mechanism, no one would be arbitrarily deprived of their nationality. This paper will examine the Burmese 1982 Citizenship Law and how it fails to meet international standards and customary practice. In this context, this paper will outline, despite human rights standard, how Rohingyas have come to be deprived of Burmese citizenship status due to their ethno-religious identity.

Women's Empowerment in South Asia: A Review Article

Abstract: 
This article review of following articles Kabir, S. L. (2013) Women’s Participation in South Asian Civil Service- A Comparative Analysis of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Dhaka: AHDPH. Afroza, S. (2013) The Emerging Role of Women in the Civil Service (Administration) of Bangladesh- An Introspective Analysis from 1971, Dhaka: Pathakshamabesh. Panday, P. K. (2013) Women’s Political Participation in Bangladesh: Institutional Reforms, Actors and Outcomes, New York: Springer. Mahtab, N. (2009) Women In Bangladesh: From Inequality to Empowerment, Dhaka: AHDPH.
Ishtiaq Jamil's picture

Inter-organizational Coordination in Urban Governance in Bangladesh: A Tale of Two Cities

Abstract: 
The purpose of this paper is to map inter-organizational coordination in urban govern- ance in Bangladesh. Focusing on two city corporations in Bangladesh, it analyzes their coordination, both vertically and horizontally, with public and non-public organizations. Does the inter-organizational coordination resemble a hierarchic-, market-, or network- based relationship, or a combination of these? The findings reveal that when rules and laws are outdated, redundant, and unclear, they make hierarchically based central-local relations ambiguous. Market-based coordination is problematic because the rules of the game are frequently disobeyed and generally ignored. Network-based coordination is more useful when there is trust, mutual reciprocity and a history of coordination. What works, then, in the case of urban governance in Bangladesh, is informal network-based coordination rooted in personal relationships, old school ties, familial and regional con- tacts, and party loyalism. This informalism is perpetuated because there is no mecha- nism to store coordinated efforts in organizational memory. Coordination initiatives therefore seldom develop into routine affairs. The general outcomes of the neglect of formal rules include the duplication of work, delays in service delivery, the waste of public money, and corruption.

A Quest for Women's Political representations: Lessons from the Nordic Countries

Abstract: 
The purpose of this paper is to map inter-organizational coordination in urban Political equality as a value is central to the normative theories of democracy, which considers that women are equal citizens and therefore should share equal voice with men in the public decision-making processes. This objective is yet to be achieved across the globe. The first wave of democracy began in the early 19th century when suffrage was granted to the majority of males in the United States. From that point to date, women’s voting right was established, to reach even the top most positions. However, the net visibility of women is still low in many countries. Globally, women’s underrepresentation is attributed to factors like lack of education, economic inability, family responsibilities, religion, stereotypes in society, electoral system, party ideology, psychological barriers (lack of assertive power, low self-esteem) etc. Most of the developing countries are struggling to remove these barriers. The developed west, has successfully addressed many of such barriers. Despite these impressive achievements, the statistical analysis of those countries shows a dismal situation in terms of the women’s representation in many of the developed countries compared to the Nordic countries; like USA 17%, France 19%, Italy 22%, UK 22%, Canada 25% and Australia 25% of the women representation in the parliament. There are differences of 10-20% women representation in the national parliament among the Nordic countries and the other industrial democratic countries. Now, the question is what are the determinants for the women’s higher level of representation in these Nordic countries while important determinants like education, economic empowerment, electoral system, religion etc. are more or less same? The answer may be embedded in the institutional arrangement of the countries. This study measures the institutional arrangement from the cultural perspective. The Nordic countries have transformed their institutional arrangement in such a way that it may create a supportive environment for women. The trends of the Nordic countries show that to increase women representation in the parliament, a country needs to reduce power distance and masculinity while the individualism needs to be concurrently increased. The global statistics of different countries also support these trends. Most of the western countries indicate that success of removing the economic and the other institutional barriers may be important but may not be adequate to ensure women’s political representations. If they are not supported by favorable cultural stimuli, they cannot ensure women’s representation. These trends may provide some learning lessons for the industrial democracies and for the other developing countries to increase women’s visibility in the political arena.

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