India

Land Acquisition in Singur for Industrialization: SEZ, Politics and Economic Intricacy

Abstract: 
This paper discusses the issues of land acquisition in changing politico-economic scenario of West Bengal. Here, the land acquisition criteria chosen are due to the peculiar political set up and economic necessities. Also, the chosen criteria are the causes of political turbulence in the state and socio-economic instability in the affected societies. The discussion reveals that though land acquisition is a part and parcel of the industrial and economic development of a region; non-judicious selection of site, method of acquisition etc. may create socio-economic imbalance and hit the aspirations of a section of the population, which ultimately creates conflict and the end result is socio-political disorder.

Global Value Chains and their Determinants: Comparative Analysis of OECD and BRICS Countries with Special Reference to Services

Abstract: 
The internationalization of the supply chain has brought a new term to the forefront known as Global Value Chains (GVCs). The reduction in trade costs, increased trade facilitation, reduction in tariffs, liberalization of domestic economy, progress in the field of ICT etc. are some of the factors that have made GVCs workable on the international platform. This paper brings out the importance of OECD and BRICS countries in GVCs as the exporter. For the purpose of the study the participation of the selected countries in GVCs has been measured and comparison is made on the following points - share of intermediate products in gross exports and imports, domestic and foreign value added content in gross exports, domestic and foreign value added content of services in gross exports, participation index, industry wise comparison with special reference to services and finally as to what the policy and non policy factors are that affect the country participation in GVCs.The major findings of the paper are as follows: the share of BRICS countries has registered an increase in the share of foreign value added content in gross exports and at the same time they are the major exporters of intermediate products in the world market. The same is true with respect to domestic and foreign value added part of services; the participation index along with backward and foreign integration index has seen an increase for BRICS.

Exclusion of Nomadic Pastoralists in the Policy Realm: A Case of Dhangar Community in Eastern Part of Satara District, Maharashtra, India

Abstract: 
Since generations, the Nomadic Pastoralists have derived their livelihood from the livestock and related activities. Dhangar, a pastoral community from the semi-arid zone, rely on the sheep and goat rearing for their survival. For generations, the community has been marginalised in the social, economic, political and academic sphere as well. Literature available on this community does not capture the issues related to their plights and exclusion in the policy realm. The study was conducted to assess the state response for the livelihood vulnerabilities of the community. It was found that, the community is excluded from the policy level discourses and decisions. Despite the livestock’s significant contribution in generating livelihood opportunities in rural areas, its importance is rarely reflected in the policy level dialogues. The study also put the clear picture that, the policies related to development corporations, Tribes and Forest Acts, veterinary services, education and health have made an exclusion of the community from the development process. Due to the lack of effective and strong policy provisions in the changing scenario, the community is not able to cope with the existing marginalization. Therefore, this paper attempts to provide empirical evidences on issues related to the marginalization and exclusion of Dhangar in the policy realm. Formulation of effective and inclusive policies can be an effective way to deal the exclusion of this community.

An Approach to Create a Sustainable Natural Water Resource Management System through Participatory Initiative in the Himalayan Region

Abstract: 
Water is the most precious commodity in universe and perhaps only Earth is bestowed with this. Though we have plenty of it but it is only about 2 percent of earth’s fresh water, which sustains human life. Unfortunately, today’s world is advancing at a steady pace towards a “below water poverty line” situation, irrespective of its confines and advancement. This paper suggests an implementable participatory approach to manage fresh water resources for its long-term sustainable use. Such an approach is practically addressing major problems like water shortage, inefficient water use, sanitation, pollution and inadequate operation cum maintenance related to naturally available palatable water in the Himalayan area of the district of Nainital in India. This paper emphasizes and draws a systematic outline for people’s involvement in operating and maintaining a valuable natural resource in an area where its availability is gradually under threat.

Performance Management System: The Indian Case

Abstract: 
The present paper is divided into 4 sections. Section 1 provides the introduction to Performance Management System (PMS), its evolution and status in India, performance monitoring and evaluation system (PMES), result based documents (RFD) at central and states and responsibility centers. Section 2 deals with international scenarios of PMS. It highlights the success stories of the countries such as Kenya, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Canada where the system has shown positive impact on the government performance. Section 3 discusses the evaluation methodology through a case study of the Department of Public Enterprises, Government of India. Section 4 provides the future outlook.
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Issues Relating to Surrogacy in India and the ART (Regulation) Bill, 2010: A Critical Report

Abstract: 
Not having a child of one's “own", a child that bears a genetic imprint of oneself, is a social problem. It can make life for some people miserable and for many others very difficult. This is because genes are the way through which families are made. Such families are assumed to be the essential material and emotional support for all people. They are also the only social security available to many people and therefore difficult to forego. A social problem needs a social solution. We need to have social security for all. ARTs, however, underline the importance of genetically linked families. In that sense, they provide individual solutions to a wider social problem. The Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2008 is meant to protect couples seeking the technology from exploitation by unscrupulous medical professionals and unethical marketing practices of ART clinics. It also purports to regulate surrogacy and respond to social and ethical issues around parenting associated with ARTs. It also tries to safeguard the rights of the commissioning couple vis-à-vis the surrogate while claiming to protect the rights of the surrogate.

An Analysis of the State of Rule of Law during Assam Movement in Assam, India

Abstract: 
Youth movement is a prominent feature of politics of Assam viewed as the most disruptive area of North-East India. Youth participation in various mass movements and their initiation of such struggles has been significant here. It has been viewed that every democratic movement in Assam seemed to be initiated by youth, which is evident from the colonial period. In the post independent era, youths are making a determined bid to change the existing society and polity of the state. Such movements have also toppled the state governments and at times forced governments to negotiate on issues involving policies affecting governance of the state. Such occurrences of youth movements in contemporary Assam center round democratic politics of India. Democratic politics involves a process of decision making that again involves popular participation. Participation of this kind would, of course, involve the principles of civil liberties and rule of law. Since youth movements have been a fact of history of the politics of Assam, there is a possibility that such movements might have affected the essential norms of democratic politics of the state. If we define democracy to include political participation, civil liberties and rule of law, it is necessary to examine how these features of democracy are affected by youth movement. This paper aims at examining how youth movement influences the democratic politics of Assam, particularly in the matter of rule of law. The researchable question we intend to examine is – does youth movement affect rule of law, the basic norm of democratic politics of the state? To facilitate the above, we plan to analyze the politics of the “Assam Movement” (1979-85) led by All Assam Students’ Union (AASU), the leading student union of Assam, for an enhanced understanding of consequences of youth movement for norms of democratic politics of the state.

Globalization and Its Impact on Indian Agriculture: A Study of Farmers’ Suicides in the State of Andhra Pradesh

Abstract: 
As a central concept in the present day international scenario, globalization is difficult to define. Still, scholars have made attempts to provide a basic understanding of the concept. The concept has become inextricably linked with the process of transformation touching upon every aspect of social, political and economic development in the globe. It can be seen as a process by which the population of the world is increasingly bonded into a single society. In the social front, globalization signifies closer interaction of people and homogenization of culture and value and the world being transformed into a ‘global village’ . Scholars like Anthony (1990), a British sociologist, conceive globalization as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”. Robert Cox, an American political scientist (1994), visualizes globalization from a different perspective. For him, “The characteristics of globalization trend include the internalizing of production, the new international division of labour, new migratory movements from South to North, the new competitive environment that accelerates these processes, and the internationalizing of state making states into agencies of the globalizing world”. This concept has assumed much significance in both developing and developed nations- more so in the former as the people talk about dilution of state authority and interference of supra national institutions. The present paper is a theoretical study which discusses the impact of globalization on agriculture in India since two decades, the problems faced by the farmers, measures to be taken to overcome these problems and negative influence of globalization so as to improve the productivity, because 56% of the population still depend on agriculture in India, and the process of globalization cannot be reversed now. Hence, an attempt is made to highlight the positive and negative impacts of globalization on this important sector.

Strengthening Capacity Building for Local Functionaries: A Case of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) in South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh

Abstract: 
India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) which is renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (from 2010) is considered as one of the most creative initiatives of post Independent India in the field of social policy. The most novel and remarkable feature of MGNREGS are i) it is legally binding response by the State to ensure Right to Work to the poor and unemployed persons (up to 100 days of employment for every household in a year) ii) provision for unemployment allowance to be paid to the workers in case the State is unable to provide the guaranteed days of work. The present paper has evaluated a total 793 respondents that include 180 Elected Representatives, 48 Block Development Officials, 193 grassroots level field implementers and 231 worker participants etc. on the efficacy of local capacity building imparted by Andhra Pradesh State Institute of Rural Development (An Apex State Level Training Institute for Rural Development Programmes) to improve the efficiency of NRGS implementation. As a part of this exercise, the key issues the study looked at are: programme design, content, teaching methods (pedagogy issues), delivery of information on the subject; to analyse the perceptions of the BDOs, Assistant Project Officers and Technical Assistants involved in NREGS on the utility of the training programmes in improving their capabilities; iii) to elicit the perceptions of NREGS participants on the performance of field functionaries; to examine the opinion of the elected representatives on the relevance of the training programmes and lastly to identify the key gaps in capacity building programmes and recommend future policy pointers to the Government. The study was done in three districts representing three development zones in the state covering 45 village panchayats (local councils).

Liberalization and Development of Financial Sector in Post-independence India

Abstract: 
The financial sector in India has changed drastically since late 1990s due to technological innovation, financial liberalization with the entry of new private and foreign banks, and regulatory changes in the corporate sector. The intense competition between these new entrants with the already existing public sector banks to cater to the needs of the same pie of consumers facilitated implementation of new ways in reducing costs, and at the same time attracting customers/business. Further liberalization of the financial sector facilitated development of capital markets; non-banking financial institutions that absorb current and potential borrowers and bank depositors, thereby, banks may face competition both in raising resources and in deploying them. In the current scenario, liberalization and deregulation have to go hand-in-hand with a greater emphasis on efficiency, consolidation, asset quality and profitability.

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