Nepal

Human Resource Development Practices: Empirical Evidences from Sahid Gangalal National Heart Center

Abstract: 
Human resource development (HRD) is the process of increasing knowledge, skills and capacities of employees. It is concerned with preparing the employees to work effectively and efficiently in the organization. It is a complementary approach to other development strategies, particularly employment and reduction of inequalities. It also considers HRD as synonymous to human development, which encompasses education, training, health, nutrition, and fertility reduction. It ensures that organizations have adequate human resources with capabilities needed for achieving goals. This article has tried to explore the practices and relation between HRD and performance of Shahid Gangalal National Heart Center.

Government-NGO Partnership in Community Development in Nepal: A Case of Kathmandu District

Abstract: 
Over the past two decades, Nepal has expressed increasing concern over the welfare of the masses and focus has shifted towards more people-centered and community-led approach to development in partnership with non-government organizations (NGOs). In this context, this study is structured around two main questions: Is the existing government-NGO partnership effective in facilitating community development at the local level? To what extent do the existing programs adopted by the government and NGOs support community development at the local level? Mixed research design was employed for the study. The study draws upon the theoretical insights of social capital theory and qualitative and quantitative data collected to test the theory. Research shows that existing partnership between the government and NGOs does not seem to be effective in achieving the expected results. Although the existing programs adopted by the government and NGOs seem to support community development, the extent of their support depends on the influence of local politics. The findings are in line with the findings of Mattessich, Murray-Close, and Monsey (2001) and Asaduzzaman (2008).

Challenges and Obstacles in Federalism and Democracy

Abstract: 
This article briefly describes some of the challenges to the traditional fields of economy and political area: the public choice approach, the tragedy of the commons debate, the ‘new’ institutional economy, and behavioral challenges. Then, the components of a basic analytical framework are presented that provide a general means for analyzing public economies and diverse forms of collective action. Descriptive study related to public economies, common-pool resources, and behavioral change have summarized what has contributed to the field of institutions. The last section concludes that the macro foundations of institutions appear firmer than the micro foundations related to the model of the individual to be used and discusses this problem.

Compliance of Value Added Tax (VAT) Policy in Nepal: A Heuristic-Institutional-Functional Analysis

Abstract: 
The synthesis of implementation theories illuminates on the policy mandates, individual and institutional capability and constructive engagement of the stakeholders. The compliance of the Value Added Tax (VAT) policy has been analyzed in light of different implementation theories. A structural and functional analysis has been conducted in order to understand the causes behind the poor compliance of VAT policy in terms of returns filing. The two-phase sequential mixed methods have been applied to study as to what extent policy mandates and the institutional capability of the tax administration affect to shape the compliance behavior of the taxpayers. The bivariate analysis of the responses and the nonparametric chi-square test showed the varied results. In the first phase, quantitative research question and hypothesis were tested to find the relationship between policy mandates and filing compliance and between institutional capability and filing compliance of VAT policy with the survey of taxpayers and tax officials; tax intermediaries; officials of the business communities; and with policy makers. In the second phase, qualitative interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were administered among tax officials and policymakers to inquire into significant quantitative results on filing compliance behavior of the taxpayers. The ontological stance that the policy clarity ensures effective implementation of the public policy is upheld.

Economic Diplomacy: A New Dimension of Nepalese Foreign Policy

Abstract: 
Contemporaneous with the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Panchayat regime in the 1990s, policy makers in Nepal faced a sudden existential crisis in the foreign policy front. In the early 1990s, therefore, the discourse on economic diplomacy attained greater prominence in the domain of foreign policy. After two and half decades of its adoption as a component of our foreign policy, it’s the time to judge its role in fostering economic development. It may be argued that the objective of economic diplomacy has not been met owing to various factors. While it is obvious that the inordinate expectations on the ability of economic diplomacy to make contributions to economic development is probably misplaced, it is nonetheless true that, shorn of much strategic and political role in either the region or the world stage, Nepal's economic diplomacy is more relevant today than in than past. The way to do this is to set clear institutional guidelines and goals, improve the Foreign Ministry's co-ordination not only with its missions abroad but also with the line ministries, private stakeholders, and enhance the interface between the human resources and modern technology backed by sound political environment at home.
Tek Nath Dhakal's picture

Strategy for Mobilizing Volunteers in Development in Nepal: Prospects and Challenges

Abstract: 
The use of volunteers in development and service delivery in an organized form is a modern concept, however, the practice of volunteerism in the society has been found since times immemorial. The traditional mode of voluntarism in Nepal was mostly based on personal relations and was also a felt need due to the lack of and/or the weak presence of the state to deliver basic services to the people particularly at the local level. In addition, the reciprocity of voluntary support and the contribution was also very much influenced by the religious feeling and the cultural practices. In Nepal, National Planning Commission (NPC) has initiated to mobilization of volun-teers through its National Development Volunteers Service (NDVS) program in development through various local level organizations such as District Development Committees, Health Posts, Agriculture service office, and the Animal Health Service including local academic institutions for the last fifteen years. In this context, query arises whether the NDVS program proves to be an appropriate strategy in Development and delivery of services in Nepal. This study reviews the implementation status of NDVS program and discusses with the volunteers and NDVS unit of the NPC to substantiate factual information. The study found that there was a high demand of such volunteers from the recipient organizations to substantiate the shortage of technical human resources in those local level organizations. It was also found quite important to build enthusiasm of volunteerism among the potential volunteers. The experience of such voluntary works also found to be helpful to the volunteers for skill development through practical learning, motivation to offer voluntary services, and useful for getting future career jobs. However, the NPC has been facing the challenge of sustainability of such schemes and retention of volunteers particularly the technical human resources due to the financial constraints, at least, to provide basic level of survival benefits to the volunteers.

Non-electoral Representation in Public Policy: Institutional Capacity of Community Electricity User Groups in Nepal

Abstract: 
While the need to access, involve, and empower citizens to the heart of public governance and decision-making for effective and accountable policy formulation and implementation remains a celebrated ideal, its outcomes, in reality, have been unyielding to a large extent. Controlled arenas of public policy deliberation and deficits within traditional electoral representation system have curtailed actual voice and concerns of citizens in public policy, leading to failure in policy adoption and implementation. Increasingly, actors and institutions outside the government have been found identifying themselves with policy functions of the government. Involvement of the third sector in complimentary roles in service provisioning, resource distribution, and infrastructure management has enabled alternative modes of mainstreaming marginalised voices in public policy processes. Changing notion and dynamics of traditional political constituency has resulted in representative claims to surface from within collective non-electoral representative institutional structures. Having common shared agendas and an egalitarian mandate, these institutions are calling for recognition in public policy functions. The growing network of Community Electricity User Groups in Nepal claims to represent a constituency of rural population across Nepal, who have been traditionally alienated by the state in favour of urban populace for electricity access. This paper discusses the institutional capacity of South Lalitpur Rural Electricity Cooperative to represent the voices of local electricity users in public policy formulation. Its objective is to assess the legitimacy of representative claims in rural electrification. Findings show that it is not sufficient to trace policy agendas across various representative levels to conclude on the legitimacy of representation, and the process of building representative agendas is largely affected by institutional decision-making structure, democratic practice in self-renewal and accountability of local leadership
Narendra Raj Paudel's picture

Democratic Responsiveness in Nepal: A Case of Constitution Drafting Process by Constituent Assembly

Abstract: 
This paper examines the ways and means of the constitution drafting process in Nepal. It is argued that preparation of the constitution draft depends upon the mandate of the Constituent Assembly election, constitution-drafting process and pressure from the public. It is assumed that the constitution has to address the needs and aspirations of the people. In this study, both primary and secondary sources of information were used to consolidate the study. Basically, primary information was gathered through an in-depth interview with politicians, law makers, political analysts, journalists and constitutional experts. So far as secondary information is concerned, the data was retrieved through the web page of the Constituent Assembly. In addition to this, other information about the meetings of Constituent Assembly was taken from the office records of Constituent Assembly Secretariat. The study revealed that Nepal adopted inductive approach to draft the new constitution. For this, 601 Constituent Assembly members were elected through Constituent Assembly election in 2008. Forty groups were formed to collect public opinion from all the constituencies. Near about five hundred thousand suggestions were collected. These suggestions were categorized on the basis of area coverage by thematic committees formed by the Constituent Assembly. Eventually, each thematic committee prepared the report and sent them to the Constituent Assembly via the constitutional committee. These reports were discussed in the Constituent Assembly. On the basis of reports and suggestions given by Constituent Assembly members, the constitutional committee prepared the preliminary draft of the constitution along with agreed and disagreed articles of the constitution. For arriving at consensus on the contentious issues, a sub-committee under the leadership of Prachanda (leader of main political party i.e. Unified Nepal Communist Party (Maoist) was formed under the constitutional committee. This committee narrowed down the 250 disputed issues of the constitution to 20. Basically, these disputes were related to forms of government, judiciary, elections and structure of federalism. The study revealed that Constituent Assembly members did not pay much attention to the draft constitution by focusing on the abovementioned disputes. Their discussions only began from minor issues which might be similar tothat other countries. At the last moment, they entered into the main issues of the constitution. The election result mandated them to draft the constitution on the basis of consensus. None of political parties had gained majority or two-thirds majority in the Constituent Assembly. The major challenges in drafting the constitution are different ideologies of the political parties, inter or intra-party conflict, instability of the government, the lingering integration of the Maoist combatants into the Nepali Army.
Laxmi Kant Paudel's picture

Public-private-NGO Partnerships in Agricultural Service Delivery in Nepal

Abstract: 
The delivery of agricultural services is one of the major activities of Nepal government to support the livelihoods of the Nepalese farmers and contribute in the development of the country. The agricultural service provides both productive inputs and services to teach farmers about improved technologies so that they can improve productivity, incomes and standard of living. Effective and efficient services can help both the farmers and the economy of the nation as a whole. Nepal initiated partnership in the 1950s with the Tribhuvan Village Development Program (TVDP) in public-public partnership. Since efforts to transfer agricultural technologies to farmers are more effective when the state (GO), non-governmental (NGO), and private (PO) sectors work in partnership. The most effective partnerships proved to be GO+PO and GO+NGO. In this backdrop, the main objective of this paper is to revisit agricultural extension system in the context of emerging trend of partnership and argues that establishing the right partnerships and strengthening them through information enhances small farmers’ access to improve and relevant sustainable agricultural technologies. For this, this paper outlines the concept of partnerships, the context of agriculture service delivery by means of public-private partnership, emerging trends in agricultural service delivery and finally it concludes with the experiences of PPPs in the Nepalese context. This study concludes that experience with PPPs is moving in the positive direction. Furthermore, the participation of the target group is essential if PPPs are to bring the desired outputs.

Street-level Bureaucrats and Coping Mechanism: Reflection of Community Forestry Policy Implementation from Nepal

Abstract: 
Scholars of public policy implementation research often note that the street-level bureaucrats’ working conditions are characterized by high service demand from their clients and sheer shortfall of organizational resources. This paper tries to unfold the routine actions of street- level bureaucrats in community forestry policy implementation in Nepal. The street- level bureaucracy theory is used as a theoretical template to explain the routine actions of the front-line workers. The main aim of this paper is to examine how and in what ways the street- level bureaucrats handle their actions in Community Forestry Policy delivery. The study employs both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The findings of this study suggest that the street-level bureaucrats face a high service demand from community forestry user groups and have inadequate organizational resources to meet such demand. It also indicates that those front-line workers prioritize their activities through several informal procedures, behaviors and strategies as well as built-in mechanisms. These archetypal informal coping strategies help them manage their substantial work load and almost unlimited service demand from CFUGs, especially in the light of sheer shortfall of organizational resources at their organization.

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