Agriculture

Laxmi Kant Paudel's picture

Public-private-NGO Partnerships in Agricultural Service Delivery in Nepal

Abstract: 
The delivery of agricultural services is one of the major activities of Nepal government to support the livelihoods of the Nepalese farmers and contribute in the development of the country. The agricultural service provides both productive inputs and services to teach farmers about improved technologies so that they can improve productivity, incomes and standard of living. Effective and efficient services can help both the farmers and the economy of the nation as a whole. Nepal initiated partnership in the 1950s with the Tribhuvan Village Development Program (TVDP) in public-public partnership. Since efforts to transfer agricultural technologies to farmers are more effective when the state (GO), non-governmental (NGO), and private (PO) sectors work in partnership. The most effective partnerships proved to be GO+PO and GO+NGO. In this backdrop, the main objective of this paper is to revisit agricultural extension system in the context of emerging trend of partnership and argues that establishing the right partnerships and strengthening them through information enhances small farmers’ access to improve and relevant sustainable agricultural technologies. For this, this paper outlines the concept of partnerships, the context of agriculture service delivery by means of public-private partnership, emerging trends in agricultural service delivery and finally it concludes with the experiences of PPPs in the Nepalese context. This study concludes that experience with PPPs is moving in the positive direction. Furthermore, the participation of the target group is essential if PPPs are to bring the desired outputs.
Laxmi Kant Paudel's picture

Governance of Agriculture Service Delivery in Nepal: Status, Issues, and Challenges

Abstract: 
Governance is a prerequisite for managing the service delivery functions that can only be ensured through high accountability and transparency on the part of the government, local bodies and effective participation of the people. The Nepalese government has created different public service delivery mechanisms to make an effective service provision to the public, however, the promises are found to be difficult to achieve. In addition, the government has created four basic broad modes of service delivery: direct delivery of services, privatization of service delivery, alternative service delivery models, and decentralization of services, especially to local government bodies. In such a context, agriculture service delivery is one of the important components of public service delivery as the Nepalese economy by the end of the Eleventh Three Year Plan is still characterized by sustenance agriculture. Furthermore, agriculture contributes to around two-fifths of the GDP and 74% of the population still depends on it for their livelihood. Despite critical contributions from the agriculture sector towards poverty reduction, investment in this sector has declined markedly. The government has made some efforts to implement agriculture policy with decentralized efforts by creating service centers throughout the 75 districts of the country. In this context, it is relevant to question: Are agriculture service delivery agencies at grassroots able to serve the people as expected? To examine this question, this study attempted to find out the status of service delivery mechanisms, issues and challenges of agriculture service delivery by reviewing the progress reports, and relevant service documents of these service centers to generate information. The finding of this study suggests that although significant efforts have been made by the agriculture service delivery system, there still exist several problems and issues that require due attention for more efficient and effective service delivery.

Globalization and Its Impact on Indian Agriculture: A Study of Farmers’ Suicides in the State of Andhra Pradesh

Abstract: 
As a central concept in the present day international scenario, globalization is difficult to define. Still, scholars have made attempts to provide a basic understanding of the concept. The concept has become inextricably linked with the process of transformation touching upon every aspect of social, political and economic development in the globe. It can be seen as a process by which the population of the world is increasingly bonded into a single society. In the social front, globalization signifies closer interaction of people and homogenization of culture and value and the world being transformed into a ‘global village’ . Scholars like Anthony (1990), a British sociologist, conceive globalization as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”. Robert Cox, an American political scientist (1994), visualizes globalization from a different perspective. For him, “The characteristics of globalization trend include the internalizing of production, the new international division of labour, new migratory movements from South to North, the new competitive environment that accelerates these processes, and the internationalizing of state making states into agencies of the globalizing world”. This concept has assumed much significance in both developing and developed nations- more so in the former as the people talk about dilution of state authority and interference of supra national institutions. The present paper is a theoretical study which discusses the impact of globalization on agriculture in India since two decades, the problems faced by the farmers, measures to be taken to overcome these problems and negative influence of globalization so as to improve the productivity, because 56% of the population still depend on agriculture in India, and the process of globalization cannot be reversed now. Hence, an attempt is made to highlight the positive and negative impacts of globalization on this important sector.
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