Challenges and Obstacles in Federalism and Democracy

This article briefly describes some of the challenges to the traditional fields of economy and political area: the public choice approach, the tragedy of the commons debate, the ‘new’ institutional economy, and behavioral challenges. Then, the components of a basic analytical framework are presented that provide a general means for analyzing public economies and diverse forms of collective action. Descriptive study related to public economies, common-pool resources, and behavioral change have summarized what has contributed to the field of institutions. The last section concludes that the macro foundations of institutions appear firmer than the micro foundations related to the model of the individual to be used and discusses this problem.

Federal Government for Good Governance in Bangladesh

The paper suggests for abolishing division, the highest unit of field administration in the country; and in place of division, it proposes for establishing provincial government. There shall be 7 provincial governments as there are 7 divisions. The central government shall be formed according to the rules of parliamentary democracy. It shall consist of the President, the Prime Minister, a Deputy Prime Minister and a cabinet. A provincial government shall compose of a Governor appointed by the President, the Chief Ministers and a council of ministers. The central legislature to be known as parliament shall be bicameral but the provincial legislature called Pradeshik Ayenshava (provincial legislature) shall be unicameral. The upper house of central legislature known as senate shall consist of 86 elected Senators of which two are reserved for the capital city of Dhaka. Each province shall elect an equal number of Senators. One-fourth of the Senators, except for the reserved two, must be from women who shall be elected by the Senators. The present central legislature called Jatiya Sangsad (House of Nation) shall remain as lower house consisting of 400 seats of which 100 will be reserved for women. The members for general seats shall be elected by direct election of the people; and women members for reserved seats shall be elected by the members from general seats. The provincial legislature called Pradeshik Ayenshava (provincial legislature) shall be an elected body. The number of its seats will vary from province to province with the variation of population size. Like central legislature, one-fourth of the seats of each provincial legislature must be reserved for women elected by the members from general seats. The term of both central and provincial legislatures shall be 4 years. The Deputy Prime Minister shall preside over the session of senate and also the joint session of senate and Jatiya Sangsad. The Speaker for Jatiya Sangsad and of Pradeshik Ayenshava shall be elected by their respective houses.
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