Economic Diplomacy: A New Dimension of Nepalese Foreign Policy

Contemporaneous with the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Panchayat regime in the 1990s, policy makers in Nepal faced a sudden existential crisis in the foreign policy front. In the early 1990s, therefore, the discourse on economic diplomacy attained greater prominence in the domain of foreign policy. After two and half decades of its adoption as a component of our foreign policy, it’s the time to judge its role in fostering economic development. It may be argued that the objective of economic diplomacy has not been met owing to various factors. While it is obvious that the inordinate expectations on the ability of economic diplomacy to make contributions to economic development is probably misplaced, it is nonetheless true that, shorn of much strategic and political role in either the region or the world stage, Nepal's economic diplomacy is more relevant today than in than past. The way to do this is to set clear institutional guidelines and goals, improve the Foreign Ministry's co-ordination not only with its missions abroad but also with the line ministries, private stakeholders, and enhance the interface between the human resources and modern technology backed by sound political environment at home.

Democratization, Globalization and Policy Trend

Since the early 1980s, when Asian countries began to fall into economic shortcomings and crisis from which most of them are yet to recover, a considerable amount of scholarly and policy attention has been devoted in attempting to improve what has been broadly described as the “policy environment” on the continent. The aim has been to overcome perceived shortcomings and crisis in the policy formulation and implementation with a view to making it more “effective” from a managerial and delivery point of view. The dominant assumption underlying the mainstream focus on the Asian policy environment is simple: Asia’s economic crisis was, in origin, primarily the product of accumulated policy distortions built up since their timely changes. Overcoming the crisis required a wholesale revisiting of the policy environment to eliminate the distortions that hampered economic growth and discouraged private initiative. This perception is of the root of the Asian economic crisis and shortcomings was soon to be codified into the ubiquitous structural adjustment programmes which the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank encouraged the Asian countries to adopt throughout the 1980s, 1990s and after that design and implementation in particular.

Globalization and Its Impact on Indian Agriculture: A Study of Farmers’ Suicides in the State of Andhra Pradesh

As a central concept in the present day international scenario, globalization is difficult to define. Still, scholars have made attempts to provide a basic understanding of the concept. The concept has become inextricably linked with the process of transformation touching upon every aspect of social, political and economic development in the globe. It can be seen as a process by which the population of the world is increasingly bonded into a single society. In the social front, globalization signifies closer interaction of people and homogenization of culture and value and the world being transformed into a ‘global village’ . Scholars like Anthony (1990), a British sociologist, conceive globalization as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”. Robert Cox, an American political scientist (1994), visualizes globalization from a different perspective. For him, “The characteristics of globalization trend include the internalizing of production, the new international division of labour, new migratory movements from South to North, the new competitive environment that accelerates these processes, and the internationalizing of state making states into agencies of the globalizing world”. This concept has assumed much significance in both developing and developed nations- more so in the former as the people talk about dilution of state authority and interference of supra national institutions. The present paper is a theoretical study which discusses the impact of globalization on agriculture in India since two decades, the problems faced by the farmers, measures to be taken to overcome these problems and negative influence of globalization so as to improve the productivity, because 56% of the population still depend on agriculture in India, and the process of globalization cannot be reversed now. Hence, an attempt is made to highlight the positive and negative impacts of globalization on this important sector.
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