Governance Reform

Federal Government for Good Governance in Bangladesh

The paper suggests for abolishing division, the highest unit of field administration in the country; and in place of division, it proposes for establishing provincial government. There shall be 7 provincial governments as there are 7 divisions. The central government shall be formed according to the rules of parliamentary democracy. It shall consist of the President, the Prime Minister, a Deputy Prime Minister and a cabinet. A provincial government shall compose of a Governor appointed by the President, the Chief Ministers and a council of ministers. The central legislature to be known as parliament shall be bicameral but the provincial legislature called Pradeshik Ayenshava (provincial legislature) shall be unicameral. The upper house of central legislature known as senate shall consist of 86 elected Senators of which two are reserved for the capital city of Dhaka. Each province shall elect an equal number of Senators. One-fourth of the Senators, except for the reserved two, must be from women who shall be elected by the Senators. The present central legislature called Jatiya Sangsad (House of Nation) shall remain as lower house consisting of 400 seats of which 100 will be reserved for women. The members for general seats shall be elected by direct election of the people; and women members for reserved seats shall be elected by the members from general seats. The provincial legislature called Pradeshik Ayenshava (provincial legislature) shall be an elected body. The number of its seats will vary from province to province with the variation of population size. Like central legislature, one-fourth of the seats of each provincial legislature must be reserved for women elected by the members from general seats. The term of both central and provincial legislatures shall be 4 years. The Deputy Prime Minister shall preside over the session of senate and also the joint session of senate and Jatiya Sangsad. The Speaker for Jatiya Sangsad and of Pradeshik Ayenshava shall be elected by their respective houses.

Governance Reform in Political Transition: The Case of Nepal’s Civil Service Reform

The democratic movements of 1990 and 2006 brought significant changes in political system in Nepal. Now, the civil service has to work in new political system embedded with many values which are not so much accustomed to the prevailed bureaucratic culture. Constituting Administrative Reform Commission (ARC) in 1992, agenda of National Development Forum in 2002, and the ADB’s Governance Reform Program Support in 2000/2007 were some of the major efforts to streamline administrative system in line with the sprit and mandate of political changes in Nepal. But there are challenges ahead in undertaking governance reform agenda for the improvement of the efficiency of civil service and for reducing corruption by enhancing the competence and motivation of the civil service in the governance matters. Despite expectations from the changes, the transition witnessed painful political turbulence emanating from inter-party conflict and intra-party feuds which has been reflective in the administrative efficiency. Frequent changes in the government and the political instability have been consequential on the reform endeavors. As a result, the administration could not nurture the democratic administrative culture to overcome the existing governance issues and the task of transforming the civil service from a non responsive to a responsive one is, therefore, in stake.
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