Non Government Organization (NGO

Policy Formulation in Bangladesh: An Analysis of Environment Policy, 1992

Like many other emerging democracies, most public policies in Bangladesh are generally framed by the traditional bureaucratic elite following a ‘top down’ approach. In general, the members of the bureaucracy at the ministries draft and process the policy in general and sometimes with tacit approval of the political executives. There is no culture among the policy makers to consult the civil society, NGOs and other stakeholders to make public policies people-oriented and truly responsive. However, during the formulation of the Environment Policy 1992, as a distinct departure from the previous trends, the government initiated a process of public consultation and involved civil society bodies, the professional groups and the NGOs. After analyzing the whole formulation process, the study has identified a number of actors and factors that played a critical role at policy demand, agenda setting, formulation and approval stages. From initiation to approval, the major institutional actors were: United Nations and some of the specialized agencies, selected donor agencies, specialized regional organizations, environmental NGOs, professional bureaucrats, key politicians and a set of consultants/ activists. These actors and factors had contributed significantly to the policy at different stages with varying degree of involvement. In brief, at the policy demand and policy agenda levels, actors and factors outside the government played the dominant role, whereas at the formulation and approval stages, the members of bureaucracy took the lead role. In the overall environmental policy-making process, UN bodies and the NGOs played effective roles in devising a perspective, through their supplementary support in the form of technical assistance and mobilization of public opinion.

Development Role of the Local Governance Institutions in Bangladesh: Empirical Overview

Local governance institutions are widely recognized as the best ground in which people can learn the art of governance through their own experiences and the reality that exists around them. Local government is also always, in all circumstances, considered as the important vehicle and only the means to provide state benefits and services to the local inhabitants. This paper attempts to analyze the performance of local governance institutions (public, non-profit and private) in Bangladesh in a critical and a comparative manner. It is found that, despite frequent reform measures, the public institutions have failed to become people-oriented democratic units due to strong intervention of formal and informal actors. As a result, corruption has burgeoned and pervaded every sector of the country as fatal disease, and has become an inevitable part of the daily life in Bangladesh. The findings of this paper indicate that the public institution is structurally stronger than the non-profit and private institutions but functionally weaker. The paper also suggests that strong public institutions can not work effectively and efficiently given their various malfunctioning practices, while comparatively weak institutional structures (NGOs) are able to work efficiently due to their good practices. As a result, it is recommended that in order to eradicate and overcome the features of poor governance, the partnership form of local governance system might be the best possible solution in aid recipient countries like Bangladesh.
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