Who Participates and Who Doesn’t? Lessons from a Community-based Development Project in Bangladesh

It is generally claimed that the second wave of participatory development, which received momentum in the 1990s, tends to be informed with broad-based social inclusion, social change and transformation. However, many have portrayed participatory development —the way it has been managed — as tyranny. This paper is a further attempt to explore some of these tyrannies of participation by focusing on a participatory development project in Bangladesh. This paper draws on a comparative case study on two project communities, and investigates: first, how socio-economic differentiation influences the extent of participation; and second, how this influence may be exaggerated by faulty project implementation guidelines. It is found that people’s ability to participate in community development project is greatly influenced by socio-economic status measured by, for example, household income, educational background and residency status. No additional effort from the project management side was made to include the most disadvantaged community people in the project activities or to make the weaker participants more active in group activities.

Globalization and Its Impact on Indian Agriculture: A Study of Farmers’ Suicides in the State of Andhra Pradesh

As a central concept in the present day international scenario, globalization is difficult to define. Still, scholars have made attempts to provide a basic understanding of the concept. The concept has become inextricably linked with the process of transformation touching upon every aspect of social, political and economic development in the globe. It can be seen as a process by which the population of the world is increasingly bonded into a single society. In the social front, globalization signifies closer interaction of people and homogenization of culture and value and the world being transformed into a ‘global village’ . Scholars like Anthony (1990), a British sociologist, conceive globalization as “the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa”. Robert Cox, an American political scientist (1994), visualizes globalization from a different perspective. For him, “The characteristics of globalization trend include the internalizing of production, the new international division of labour, new migratory movements from South to North, the new competitive environment that accelerates these processes, and the internationalizing of state making states into agencies of the globalizing world”. This concept has assumed much significance in both developing and developed nations- more so in the former as the people talk about dilution of state authority and interference of supra national institutions. The present paper is a theoretical study which discusses the impact of globalization on agriculture in India since two decades, the problems faced by the farmers, measures to be taken to overcome these problems and negative influence of globalization so as to improve the productivity, because 56% of the population still depend on agriculture in India, and the process of globalization cannot be reversed now. Hence, an attempt is made to highlight the positive and negative impacts of globalization on this important sector.
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