Bipasha Dutta's picture

From Hierarchy to Market: Changing Balance in Modes of Governance in Higher Education Policy in Bangladesh

The economy of Bangladesh evolved through different phases like nationalization, denationalization and movement towards market-based economy. This paper identifies three major trends of market-based economy – privatization, trade liberalization and export promotion. The paper argues that the reports of education committee and education policy 2010 in determining the nature of higher education respond to the economic trends in several cases. By analyzing relevant existing literature and five reports of the education committee, the paper reveals that the economy has moved forward to gain market orientation from hierarchy; at the same time the focus of the education commissions reports changes from the ‘denunciation of mechanization' (1972) to ‘use of technology in education' (2013). The paper finds that the higher education system in Bangladesh is responding according to the market demand and market economy, though at a slow pace.

Public-Private Partnership as a Policy Strategy of Infrastructure Financing in Nigeria

For much of Nigeria’s post colonial history, the state has been the dominant provider of infrastructure finance. The capacity of the Nigerian state for exclusive funding of infrastructure was, however, seriously challenged in the early 1980s when Nigerian economy was hit with a severe crisis culminating in the adoption of the IMF and World Bank-inspired Structural Adjustment Program (SAP). Under the SAP regime, the state was required to disengage from social delivery, including infrastructure provisioning. Within the context of the current global economic recession, the declining revenue base of the Nigerian state has made sourcing for alternative means of funding infrastructure inevitable. PPP represents one sure way of overcoming the challenges posed by the global financial crisis. This paper interrogates the phenomenon of PPP in Nigeria. It contends that while the initiative has high prospects, attaining its promises is contingent on the availability of certain success factors.
Laxmi Kant Paudel's picture

The Privatization Policy Transfer: A Nepalese Experience

After three decades of state intervention throughout the world the 1980s and 1990s have seen a marked reversal in economic policies. Instead of government intervention, control and centralized planning, there has been a renewed and invigorating emphasis on a market oriented strategy. Privatization constitutes one of the cornerstones of that strategy. During the 1980’s there was a remarkable change in Nepalese economic policy, thereby, liberalizing its economy to facilitate the private sector and a competitive market system. The new initiative- from the commanding heights of the states to market forces- is entirely based on the external inducement by the IMF and the World Bank. This change culminated in the early 1990s when the Koirala government published a white paper ‘Policy Paper on the Privatization of Public Enterprises’ (1991), which clearly aimed to introduce a balanced approach between the public sector and private sector. To accelerate the process the government has also made various reforms on the registration and licensing, pricing and subsidies, financial markets etc. The main motive of this paper is to explain that the move towards privatization, in the Nepalese context, is a case of policy transfer. This paper tries to explain the causes of the occurrences of policy transfer, who transferred and what was transferred.
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